?1.??中国有 14.04 亿人，是世界上人口最多的国家。
China is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.
?2.??中国国土面积约 960 万平方公里，陆地面积位居世界第二位。
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area.
?3.??中国下辖 22 个省， 5 个自治区和 4 个直辖市以及香港和澳门特别行政区，对台湾拥有主权。
It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan.
China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.
Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times.
?6.???自从 1978 年实行经济改革以来，中国的经济增速一直位居世界前列。
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing.
?7.???截止到 2016 年，按名义 gdp 计算，中国成为世界第二大经济体，按购买力平价计算，中国是世界第一大经济体。
As of 2016, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).
China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.
China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
The oracle bone script represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.
?11.???周国被削弱后许多国家最终独立，在为期 300 年的春秋时期相互交战不断。
Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn period.
?12.???到了公元前 5 到公元前 3 世纪的战国时期，在今天的中国版图上出现了战国七雄。
By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries bce, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China.
China’ s First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.
?14.???秦国于公元前 221 年打败了其他六国，建立了第一个统一的中国，标志着战国时期的结束。
The Warring States period ended in 221 bce after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state.
He enacted Qin's legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, and currency.
?16.???秦朝仅仅持续了 15 年，在始皇帝去世后，由于他采取的严酷专制政策造成大规模反抗，秦朝很快就覆亡了。
The Qin dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor's death, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.
Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. Despite the Han's initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin philosophy of Legalism in favor of Confucianism, Qin's legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors.
After the end of the Han dynasty, a period of strife known as Three Kingdoms followed, whose central figures were later immortalized in one of the Four Classics of Chinese literature.
The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism.
Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology, and culture entered a golden age.The Tang Empire returned control of the Western Regions and the Silk Road, and made the capital Chang'an a cosmopolitan urban center.
?21.???但是，公元 8 世纪爆发的安史之乱对唐朝造成重创，唐朝由此衰弱。
However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century.
In 907, the Tang disintegrated completely when the local military governors became ungovernable.
The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade.
?24.???公元 10 到 11 世纪，中国人口翻了一番，达到约 1 亿人，这主要得益于中国中部和南部水稻种植面积的扩大和大量粮食盈余。
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly because of the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.
The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, and a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity.
?26.???在 13 世纪，蒙古族统治了中国。1271 年，蒙古领袖忽必烈汗建立了元朝，于 1279 年征服了宋朝的最后残余力量。
The 13th century brought the Mongol conquest of China. In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1279.
?27.???在蒙古入侵之前，宋朝统治下的中国人口为 1.2 亿，到 1300 年人口统计时下降到了 6000 万。
Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300.
Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.
It was during this period that Zheng He led treasure voyages throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa.
In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of peasant rebel forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell.
The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.
?32.???清朝从 1644 年持续到 1912 年，是中国的最后一个帝制王朝。
The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China.
?33.???在征服明朝的过程中， 2500 万人丧生，中国经济实力大幅下降。
Its conquest of the Ming cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically.
The centralized autocracy was strengthened to crack down on anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agriculture and restraining commerce, the Haijin("sea ban"), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technological stagnation.
?35.???在 19 世纪中叶，清朝在与英法鸦片战争中经历了西方帝国主义的侵略。
In the mid-19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France.
?36.???当时中国被迫赔款，开放商埠，允许外国公民有治外法权，并根据第一个不平等条约，即 1842 年签订的《南京条约》把香港割让给英国。
China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to theBritish under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the first of the Unequal Treaties.
The First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.
?38.???19 世纪的洋务运动虽然取得了初步成功，但是 19 世纪 80 年代和 90 年代军事上遭受的一连串挫败也让这种成功前功尽弃。
The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.
?39.???19 世纪，中国出现了人口大迁徙。除了人口迁移造成的损失外，当时还天灾人祸不断，如： 1876-1879 年北方的大饥荒造成了 900-1300 万人丧生。
In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died.
The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty.
?41.???在他们当政期间，中国经济蓬勃发展， 1.5 亿农民摆脱贫困，经济年均增速保持在 11.2％的水平。
Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.
?42.???中国 2001 年正式加入世贸组织，此后保持了经济的快速发展。
The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth in the 2000s.
However, rapid growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, and caused major social displacement.
China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south.
The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia.
The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixthlongest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard.
?47.???中国沿太平洋海岸线长 14,500 公里，有渤海、黄海、东海和南海。
China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas.
China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route – the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road(s).
?49.???中华人民共和国按陆地面积计算是仅次于俄罗斯的世界第二大国，根据总面积定义的不同，中国总面积位居世界第三位（排在俄罗斯和加拿大之后） 或第四位（排在俄罗斯、加拿大和美国之后） 。
The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia, and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States
?50.???中国的陆地边界长度居世界首位， 从鸭绿江到北部湾，全长为 22,117 公里。
China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 km (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin.